Anal fissure is a rupture of the anus mucous membrane with subsequent healing and scarring.
Distinguish an acute and the chronic anal fissure. They are differ in the existence duration, the ruptures repeated number, the scar tissue amount. An acute anal fissure is an isolated case of the ruptures, an absence of the ruptures repeat and the small scar size. The chronic anal fissure is the frequent repeated ruptures and the large scar size.
An anal fissure is the other diseases complication that lead to an increase the anal muscles tone and to the anus trauma.
The main anal fissure causes are the hemorrhoids, an acute and chronic paraproctitis, a frequent diarrhea or constipation, the anus and rectum injuries, the neurological diseases, which increased the anal muscle tone, the anus strictures.
The disease proceeds in the chronic form with remissions episodes, during the fissure complete healing and scarring, and periods of the exacerbation, during the fissures repeated and inflammation.
The anal fissure symptoms are the painful defecation, the anus pain or discomfort and blood appearance after the defecation.
The most common anal fissure complications are an acute and chronic paraproctitis. The most severe anal fissure complications are the anus narrowing and rectal cancer.
The anal fissure diagnosis consists in the patient conversation, an objective examination, the general laboratory examinations and the rectum endoscopic examination conducting. The examination range can expanded by physician decision. An acute anal fissure treatment can be conservative and surgical. The chronic anal fissure treatment is always surgical. There are classic, atraumatic, and high-tech surgical treatments methods.
The anal fissure prevention is consists in the timely preventive examinations, the proper nutrition, the personal hygiene rules compliance, the timely diagnosis and treatment of the colon diseases.