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Prostate cancer – specifics and treatment of the disease

The prostate or prostate gland is an important part of the male reproductive system. Its key functions include the production of secretions released during ejaculation to liquefy sperm and maintain sperm viability, and the ability to retain urine during erection.

Specifics of the disease

Prostate cancer is one of the leading cancer diseases in men (25% of all tumors in men). As a rule, the pathology manifests itself in patients over the age of 60 years and may be caused by disorders of endocrine regulation in the sexual sphere.

The key feature of prostate cancer is the slow development of the malignancy with the absence of obvious symptoms in the early stages of the disease. That is why experts recommend that men over 45 years of age undergo regular preventive examinations for timely detection of pathology.

Risk factors

Regardless of the specific region in which the patient lives, prostate cancer manifests itself for the same number of reasons:

  • Genetic predisposition – studies in various countries show some “selectivity” of the disease. For example, in the United States, prostate cancer is diagnosed more often in black patients. Research by Scandinavian specialists suggests that about 40% of cases of the disease are explained by a genetic factor (a history of relatives with prostate cancer doubles the risk of developing a tumor). However, not a single gene has yet been discovered that would take “responsibility” for the development of organ pathology.
  • Type of diet – a number of studies have shown that frequent consumption of high-calorie, high-fat foods can trigger the development of a pathology such as prostate cancer. Patients whose diet is dominated by meat, eggs, cheeses and milk are more at risk. Vegetarians get sick less often. Reduced levels of vitamin D in the body (often associated with lack of ultraviolet exposure) also increases the risk of developing prostate cancer.
  • The influence of the carcinogenic properties of cadmium during chronic intoxication is usually associated with work at copper and lead smelters and industries related to batteries (accumulators, batteries). Minimizing contact will reduce the risk of developing cancer.
  • Prostate adenoma – progressive hyperplasia of the organ often provokes the growth of a malignant tumor.

Symptoms of pathology

As mentioned above, in the early stages the disease rarely manifests itself. Often the following symptoms are characteristic of prostate cancer: frequent urge to urinate with a feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder, spastic pain in the groin, the appearance of a thin or intermittent stream of urine, the need to strain the abdominal muscles to empty the bladder. But the problem is that these same signs may indicate the presence of other diseases – prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland) or benign tumors (prostate adenoma).

If, in the presence of these symptoms, prostatitis is not detected, it may indeed be a tumor. Deterioration of erection may occur due to tumor growth and compression of the nerves that affect erection. The volume of ejaculated sperm may also decrease due to blockage of the vas deferens by the tumor.

More severe symptoms – hematuria (blood in the urine), pain in different parts of the body (in the legs, back – in the presence of metastases) appear already in the later stages, when the disease requires very complex, unpleasant and lengthy treatment. Therefore, it is extremely important to periodically undergo a preventive examination with a urologist and contact if you have the slightest alarming symptoms.

Treatment methods


Considered a key treatment for prostate cancer. Among the most common surgical interventions is radical prostatectomy (removal of the organ along with the seminal vesicles).
The table shows some data on prostate cancer surgery at the AVICENNA MED clinic:

MethodOpen or Laparoscopic
AnesthesiaGeneral anesthesia
Operation duration120-180 minutes
Stay at the clinic3-5 days
  • normalization of urination;
  • increasing life expectancy;
  • improved quality of life (pain disappears, blood in the urine disappears).
Estimated cost of the caseDetermined after consultation with an oncourologist

Radiotherapy and brachytherapy

External beam radiation therapy is a radical method of treating prostate cancer, where radiation exposure to the prostate and nearby lymph nodes using focused radioactive radiation from a special device is used as a tool. Brachytherapy is the interstitial effect of radioactive radiation using grains with a radioactive drug, brought directly to the prostate tumor.

Such methods give good results, but are inferior to the surgical method, since they do not allow histological analysis of the extent of the tumor, which directly affects the specifics of treatment.


The use of hormonal therapy is highly effective when used in the later stages of cancer – it blocks the effect of testosterone on the prostate or suppresses the production of the hormone.

Dynamic observation and prognosis

The decision to treat the tumor or monitor its development is discussed directly with the patient. This is a trade-off between the expected effects of different treatments in terms of prostate cancer survival and maintenance of a comfortable life. The prognosis of the disease depends on the stage of the process. The earlier treatment is started, the higher the likelihood of a favorable outcome. In the early stages, with adequate treatment, the prognosis is conditionally favorable, and the ability to work is completely restored. In the later stages, the prognosis is certainly unfavorable, and the disease is fatal.


In terms of factors that a person can influence, prostate cancer prevention includes two main areas – a healthy lifestyle and proper nutrition.

A healthy lifestyle, first of all, means giving up bad habits and maintaining optimal physical shape and sexual behavior, taking into account the age category. As for the diet, it is important to place special emphasis on the consumption of vegetables and fruits (especially cabbage, soy, tomatoes, grapes, etc.) and reduce the consumption of fatty animal foods, as well as foods with a high calcium content (for example, milk).