When the outflow of urine from the renal pelvis slows, the kidney cavity increases. This disease is called hydronephrosis. Increased pressure in the calyx and pelvis due to the accumulation of fluid in the kidney. As a result of these processes, the renal tubules are compressed, the blood flow inside the vessels is reduced, and the death of the renal tissues begins. The absence of treatment leads to kidney atrophy. It is noteworthy that often only one kidney is affected.
There are two types of causes of hydronephrosis:
The first group includes obstruction and dyskinesia of the urinary tract, atypical location of the arteries of the kidneys, compressing the urinary tract, pathological placement of the ureter and its narrowing.
Acquired hydronephrosis is caused by infectious and inflammatory lesions of the kidneys, a violation of urinary diversion due to dysfunction of the spinal cord, the appearance of stones in the urinary tract, post-traumatic scars on the walls of the renal tubules, oncology of the pelvic organs.
Symptoms of the disease
There are three stages of development of hydronephrosis, depending on the degree of damage to the renal and pelvic system.
- Stage 1 Because of the accumulated fluid in the kidney, the walls of the pelvis begin to stretch. A person does not experience any unpleasant symptoms. Deviations in the work of the body can indicate laboratory tests and ultrasound.
- Stage 2 The pelvis is stretched, its walls are thinner and the kidney increases in size. Working capacity of the body is reduced by 2 times. At this stage the healthy kidney works for two.
- Stage 3 The kidney increases in size 2 times, becoming a multi-chamber, fluid-filled cavity. Its functioning slows down or stops altogether. A healthy kidney does not cope with the work for two organs, kidney failure develops. Lack of medical care leads to death.
With the development of pathological processes, the patient observes a number of symptoms, such as acute and traumatic pains in the ureter and lower back, kidney colic, the appearance of urine in the urine, a decrease in the amount of urine during urination, swelling, anemia, bloating, increased pressure and body temperature, vomiting.
Diagnosis of hydronephrosis
When symptoms appear, it is important to consult a urologist as soon as possible. Early diagnosis is the guarantee of effective treatment. The doctor performs an examination of the patient, appoints laboratory tests of urine and blood, ultrasound and X-ray examination, and if necessary, magnetic resonance imaging.
Treatment of hydronephrosis
Therapy of hydronephrosis has a high effectiveness with timely access to the doctor, proper diagnosis and the appointment of appropriate treatment to eliminate the cause of the disease.
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